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2 edition of Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salts found in the catalog.

Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salts

Ian Peter Lightfoot

Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salts

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Published by De Montfort University in Leicester .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D) - De Montfort University, Leicester 2000.

StatementIan Peter Lightfoot.
ContributionsDe Montfort University.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL18938772M

This book, the result of its investigation, addresses the use of alternative destruction technologies to replace, partly or wholly, or to be used in addition to the baseline technology. The book considers principal technologies that might be applied to the disposal program, strategies that might be used to manage the stockpile, and combinations. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers . Destruction of chlorinated organic solvents in a two-stage molten salt oxidation reactor system. Global Solvents Report: Opportunities for Greener Solvents As a straight solvent, D-limonene can replace many types of products such as fluorinated and chlorinated organic solvents, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), mineral spirits, glycol ethers. Thermal desorption is an environmental remediation technology that utilizes heat to increase the volatility of contaminants such that they can be removed (separated) from the solid matrix (typically soil, sludge or filter cake). The volatilized contaminants are then either collected or thermally destroyed. A thermal desorption system therefore has two major components; the .

A molten salt process may also be used for waste pyrolysis. In molten-salt oxidation (MSO), combustible waste is oxidized in a bath of molten salts (at –¡C). There is no direct flame, and this prevents many of the problems associated with incineration. Shredded solid waste is injected with air under the surface of a molten salt bath.


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Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salts by Ian Peter Lightfoot Download PDF EPUB FB2

Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salt. Lightfoot, Ian Peter and Colston, Belinda and Dahm, R () Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salt.

PhD thesis, De Montfort University. Full text not available from this repository. This work investigates the use of the DuPont process, for the non-oxidative destruction of organohalogens, as an alternative method of disposal for these environmentally hazardous compounds.

A small-scale bath was constructed for the generation of a 2% sodium hydride solution in molten sodium hydroxide, by the reaction of hydrogen and metallic : Ian Peter Lightfoot. Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salt.

Furthermore, due to the non-oxidative properties of the molten salt, no chlorinated gaseous products are observed, including HCl. This would be of major benefit to a method of disposal for halogenated hydrocarbons. One of the promising alternatives is a molten salt oxidation.

In a hot molten alkali carbonated salt, the hydrogen chloride or chlorine first released at the stage of a dehydrochlorination of the chlorinated organics are trapped in the form of an alkali chloride. Therefore the recombination of toxic chlorinated organics is prevented.

The purpose of this study is to establish the influence of a metal oxide Cited by: 4. The collection of chlorines in the molten salt was not influenced by the tested operating temperatures of °C. Nearly all the acid from the destruction of the tested Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salts book solvent is collected in the tested molten salt oxidation system, indicating that no acid gas scrubbing system is necessary.

Previous chapter in volumeCited by: 4. Molten salt oxidation, or MSO for short, is one of the promising alternative destruction technologies for chlorinated organics, because it Reductive destruction of chlorinated organics in molten salts book capable of trapping chlorine during an organic destruction.

In a hot molten sodium carbonate, for example, hydrogen chloride or chlorine is first released at the stage of a catalytic destruction of the chlorinated organics and it is trapped in the form of sodium chloride Cited by: The characteristics of molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactors for the destruction of chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl) and trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) were investigated.

The influences of temperature, oxidizing. Destruction of chlorinated organics by hydrotreatment using Ru/TiO2 catalyst Article in The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 91(4) April with 42. Fe0-mediated reductive destruction of hazardous organic compounds such as chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) and nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) in.

Chlorinated Organics As a result of their physical and chemical properties, OxyChem‘s chlorinated organics have a wide range of applications as industrial solvents. Compared to other organic solvents, chlorinated organics exhibit unique chemical properties such as high solvency, non-flammability, low boiling point, and high vapor Size: KB.

A molten salt copper chloride based system supported on silica is a catalyst for the total oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and chlorinated organics using air.

The catalyst shows a very high activity for the total oxidation of chlorinated compounds such as CH 2 Cl 2, CH 2 ClCH 2 Cl, CCl 4 and 1,2-dichlorobenzene at mild temperatures (–°C) Cited by: Reductive dechlorination Chlorinated solvents may undergo a different anaerobic biodegradation process, reductive dechlorination, in which the chlorine atoms are sequentially removed from the contaminant molecule and substituted by hydrogen as shown for PCE in Fig.

and for carbon tetrachloride in Fig. Sign in to download full-size image. Hydrogenolysis (reductive dechlorination) is a reductive process, in which a halogen is substituted by a hydrogen atom, with the simultaneous addition of two electrons to the molecule (Mohn and Tiedje ).

It is the principal degradation pathway for highly chlorinated ethene derivatives (Nobre and Nobre ). 3Cited by: Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a flameless thermal process with the inherent capability of efficiently destroying organic constituents in waste and retaining the inorganic constituents in the salt.

Study on the properties and applications of molten Xiangyang Zhao, Zhitong Yao, Jinhui Li. a variety of liquid and solid organic feeds: chlorinated solvents, tributyl phosphate.

Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, naphthalenes and dibenzo-p-dioxins by magnesium/palladium bimetallic particles. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A42 (6), DOI: / Jeong-Hak Choi, Young-Hun Kim, Sang June by: title = "Reductive Dehalogenation of Chlorinated Methanes by Iron Metal", abstract = "Reduction of chlorinated solvents by fine-grained iron metal was studied in well-mixed anaerobic batch systems in order to help assess the utility of this reaction in remediation of contaminated by: In Situ.

The most frequently used in situ bioremediation technique is enhanced reductive dechlorination that consists of the addition of organic substrates (electron donors) to ensure highly reducing conditions and to provide the hydrogen needed by dechlorinating organisms (ITRC ), which can be used for dissolved phase contaminants, DNAPL, and DNAPL.

The destruction of chlorinated organic solvents in a molten carbonate in the presence of floating powdered transition metal oxides was also reported [72, 73, 86]. At a given oxidation efficiency, the addition of the transition metal oxides to the molten salt reduced the operating by: 6.

Subcolloidal (of chlorinated benzenes in aqueous solution. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (4 mg/L) was dechlorinated to tetra- tri- and dichlorobenzenes (TeCB, TCB, and DCB, respectively) within 24 h at a metal loading of 25 g/L.

Principal degradation products included 1,2,4,5-TeCB, 1,2,4. In summary, in-situ bioremediation and enhanced reductive dechlorination is an attractive remedial technologies because as a thick solution can be injected into the contaminated groundwater plume and the chlorinated solvents within the plume will degrade and breakdown.

HE handling, storage, and destruction of hazardous wastes (which includes polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorohexane, and most chlorinated organics) is regulated by law in most of countries.

Although industry is making strides in reducing the usage of chlorinated solvents, a survey done in shows that approximatelykg of. for oxidation and reduction reactions, sulfate salt reduction for carbonate recycling, and chloride salts for pyrochemical the salt and complete destruction of the organics (typically >.

%) is achieved at temperatures of C. e e destruction of chlorinated organic solvents in a molten carbonate in the presence of oating powdered tran.

Molten salt synthesis is a modification of the powder metallurgical method. Salt with a low melting point is added to the reactants and heated above the melting point of the salt. The molten salt acts as the solvent.

Molten salts have been used as additives to enhance the rates of solid state reactions for a long by:   A major strategy for the bioremediation of these solvents is reductive dechlorination by microorganisms, most predominantly members of the Dehalococcoides group, the only microbes known to detoxify chlorinated ethenes to ethene.

Members of this group have streamlined genomes highly adapted to using chlorinated hydrocarbons as electron acceptors Cited by: The sodium salts of chlorine, fluorine, phosphorus, arsenic, sulfur, and silicon as well as iron oxide, silver, and copper all end up in the molten salt bath.

The gaseous effluents need to be filtered to remove some of the fine particulates formed in the bath, and the process would probably require an afterburner. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp {degrees}C) at {ge} {degrees}C.

This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides Cited by: 4.

The major uses of antimony pentafluoride are: (1) the preparation of organic fluorine compounds, either alone or in combination with hydrogen fluoride, iodine pentafluoride, or antimony pentachloride; (2) the substitution of fluoride for chlorine in chlorinated hydrocarbons; (3) the formation of complex compounds with other metal salts and halogens; (4) the.

Chlorinated Organics Team wish to acknowledge the individuals, organizations, and agencies that contributed to this technical and regulatory guidance document.

As part of the broader ITRC effort, the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Team’s. Chemical Reducing Solution is a liquid iron-based reagent for the enhanced biogeochemical in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) of chlorinated contaminants.

CRS is a pH neutral, liquid iron solution that is injected into contaminated groundwater to treat halogenated hydrocarbon contaminants such as chlorinated ethenes and ethanes. organic carbon concentrations in the injection area wells and that concentrations of chlorinated ethenes in the treatment zone have decreased more than 99%.

This success has been achieved despite some parameters (e.g., ORP) being outside of optimal ranges for reductive dechlorination. Continued groundwater sampling will be conducted to.

Ultraviolet Dechlorination – Another way to remove chlorine is ultraviolet irradiation. This is a high intensity method of chlorine removal that uses broad spectrum ultraviolet irradiation to dissociate free chlorine and chloramines, turning them into hydrochloric acid.

The ultraviolet total organic (TOC) reduction process utilizes different. Sonochemical Destruction of CFC 11 and CFC in Dilute Aqueous Solution. Environmental Science & Technology28 (9), DOI: /esa Ashish. Bhatnagar, H. Michael. Cheung. Sonochemical Destruction of Chlorinated C1 and C2 Volatile Organic Compounds in Dilute Aqueous by: Yang et al.

investigated the destruction of chlorinated organic solvents in a molten carbonate reactor, in which floating powdered transition metal oxides were present.

The collection of chlorine in the molten salt did not change within the operating temperature range –° by: 1. @article{osti_, title = {Incineration in molten salts of alpha-contaminated solid waste}, author = {Brambilla, G.

and Quercioli, E. and Beaulardi, L. and Gritti, R.}, abstractNote = {Incineration by the molten salt process is found to be suitable for the safe destruction of alpha-contaminated waste without pollution but with the possibility of plutonium recovery.

The electrochemical reduction of chlorinated chemicals such as chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can be carried out by electrolysis in appropriate solvents, such as mixtures of water and alcohol. Some of the key components of an electrolytic cell are types of electrodes, electrolyte mediums, and use of mediators.

In addition to waste disposal, the molten salt process has potential application for coal gasification and stack gas desulfurization.

In the basic molten salt concept for waste disposal the waste is injected below the surface of a molten salt bath.

Typically, salt composition is 90 percent sodium carbonate and 10 percent sodium sulfate. The reductive dehalogenation of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene by vitamin B12 produces ∼95% (Z)-dichloroethylene (DCE) and small amounts of (E)-DCE and 1,1-DCE, which are further reduced to ethylene and ethane.

Chloroacetylene and acetylene have been detected as intermediates, but not dichloroacetylene. Organocobalamins (RCbls) have been proposed Cited by: Methods of treatment of cyanide-containing waste are provided.

In particular, methods for treatment of spent potliner prior to landfill disposal are provided. These methods, which involve treatment of the waste with a mixture containing an aqueous oxidizing solution containing an agent, such as a metal chloride, that increases the oxidation potential of the solution, can be Cited by: Integrated Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation with Salt Recycle for Mixed Waste Treatment P.C.

Hsu D.L. Hipple D.V. Squire E.H. von Holtz R.W. Hopper M.G. Adamson November This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication in a journal or proceedings. Since changes may be made before publication, this preprint is made available withCited by: 5. OF PCBS AND CHLORINATED PESTICIDES AND THE DESTRUCTION OF THE HAZARDOUS ORGANIC SOLVENTS IN WASTE WATER Mahnaz Chaychian, Doctor of Philosophy, dechlorinated by reduction, while toxic organic compounds in water are removed by oxidation.

The complete conversion of 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 54) in.Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp {degrees}C) at {ge} {degrees}C.

This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides.Chlorinated Dioxins In addition to providing for the complete destruction of the chemical agent, any alternative process must not inadvertently create other harmful waste products.

Of special regulatory concern is the possible production of chlorinated dioxins by recombination of the components produced in the primary agent destruction process.